Kuleshov Effect: Viewers derive more meaning from the interaction of two sequential shots than from a single shot in isolation.
The Kuleshov effect is a cognitive phenomenon where viewers derive more meaning from the interaction of two back-to-back shots than from a single shot in isolation. Modern filmmakers widely use it as a film editing technique.
In this video, Alfred Hitchcock demonstrated the Kuleshov Effect. For instance, if a close-up shot of Hitchcock is followed by a woman holding a baby and then his reaction of smiling, the audience may perceive him as a kind old man.
However, if the middle shot is replaced with a young woman in a bikini while the other two shots remain the same, the audience may perceive him as a dirty old man. The audience's perception of the same shot of Hitchcock's reaction changed by their juxtaposition with other shots. In other words, the Kuleshov Effect changes the meaning of individual shots by its preceding and succeeding shots.